CBD Oil Canada

The Positive Side of CBD

Read Time: 5 minutes

So far in our core article series, we’ve introduced CBD, talked about safety, and given a brief overview of the typical CBD lingo. In this installment, we turn to the positive side of CBD – the areas where the grass is greener, so to speak. There’s a lot of excitement in the world of research right now due to the complex nature of how our bodies interact with CBD and other cannabinoids, with one recent article showing great optimism towards the value of hemp and cannabinoids in food, health and the future1.

Below is a glimpse of the excitement in the form of a quick reference table. While we do our best to be comprehensive, it’s still far from complete – it’s pretty much impossible to condense everything into a single table! Keep in mind that what’s in the table isn’t absolute truth, but merely what the science suggests given current evidence – it takes time, patience and especially funding to really be certain of things in a medical sense. That’s why, to get a rough idea of how conclusive things are, we’ve included a (totally subjective) rating of how strong the evidence is, based on what the body of research looks like:

1/5: Weak – in vitro studies (test tubes, petri dishes, etc.), other preliminary studies, surveys

2/5: Basic – small body of animal studies, case studies

3/5: Decent – strong preclinical evidence, basic clinical findings from randomized control trials (RCTs)

4/5: Good – moderate body of mostly consistent evidence: RCTs, systematic reviews, meta-analyses

5/5: Substantial – large, high quality body of consistent evidence: large-scale RCTs, meta-analyses

Each area of interest gets a blanket rating that gives us a basic idea of whether we have conclusive, detailed evidence of the suggested effects, or just vague hints of them. Note the “blanket” part – each area of interest may have several aspects, each with their own body of evidence, but we want to keep things as simple as possible. We’ll dive deeper into nuances in the future! In most cases the evidence is weak, basic or decent, with the exception of epilepsy. The best explanation for this, I imagine, is the fact that while there’s so much potential for CBD, there is only so much funding available, and we already have drugs for a lot of conditions. But CBD showed promise for treatment resistant forms of epilepsy, and since they’re hard to treat, research into this took immediate priority.

One final but important point: weak evidence doesn’t necessarily mean a suggestion is untrue, but rather that things are in the early stages of research. As the saying goes, absence of evidence is not evidence of absence – further investigation may show that the suggestion is false, but without strong evidence of falsehood, it’s simply vague or unverified and needs further investigation.

That being said, I’ll leave you to the table below – ‘til next time.

— Rick


Area of Interest Suggested Properties

of CBD

Strength of Evidence Comments
Addiction • Reduces cravings for various drugs (see comments) and alcohol and may reduce chances of relapse2,3,4,5

• May reduce alcohol-related brain and liver damage3,4



• Drugs investigated include2: nicotine6, cannabis7, cocaine8, methamphetamine8 and opiates2 (including heroin)9
Anxiety & Mental Health • Reduces anxiety10,11,12 and symptoms of PTSD13 and schizophrenia14

• Helps prevent15, lessen16,17 and unlearn18 conditioned fear responses19



• Some mixed findings among clinical trials10 and fear response investigations20,21

• Bell-shaped response: need “sweet spot” dose to be effective12,22

Athletes Many potential benefits for athletes, including pain/anxiety relief, neuroprotection and improved trauma recovery23,24 1/5


Potential related to studies on pain, anxiety, etc.; there are no studies in athletic context or studies on performance23,24
Autism • Effects on brain activity different in autistic patients25

• Improvement in many areas, including behaviour, sleep and anxiety26



• Many studies included low amounts of THC26

• Lower levels of anandamide (an endocannabinoid) in autistic patients27

Cancer Anti-tumour effects in many different types of cancer28,29,30,31 2/5


Presence of blood serum may reduce effectiveness32


• Lessens increased heart rate and blood pressure in stressful situations33

• Reduces cardiovascular oxidative/nitrative stress from conditions such as heart attack, diabetes and ischemia33

• Reduces arrhythmia in ischemia33

• Increases cerebral blood flow in some regions of the brain33,34



• Mixed results regarding effects on blood pressure and heart rate; antiarrhythmic and antioxidant effects more consistent33

• Minimal impact on cardiovascular system in normal conditions33

Epilepsy Up to 100% seizure reduction in patients with severe treatment-resistant epilepsy15 5/5


Epidiolex, the first FDA-approved pure CBD product, is prescribed for rare forms of epilepsy.
Immune Function • Suppresses immune response35,36

• Has potential to treat autoimmune disorders35,36

• Helps lower incidence of graft-versus-host-disease37

• Can help prevent organ transplant rejection38



Evidence for immune suppression stronger than the other potential benefits.
Neuroprotection Has potential to treat neurodegenerative disorders39,40,41,42,43 such as multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer’s disease and allodynia 1/5


• Other neurodegenerative disorders include: ALS, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease

• Many results from in vitro studies

• Sativex is a 1:1 THC/CBD formulation for patients with MS

• May also be effective in combination with CBG44,45,46,47

Other Has potential to treat irritable bowel syndrome, migraines and fibromyalgia48 1/5
According to a highly theoretical condition dubbed Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency48
Pain & Inflammation • Relieves neuropathic43 and  inflammatory pain49,50,51

• May reduce pain sensitivity following injuries43,52



• Clinical trials with pure CBD lacking; most involve THC53,54

• Topicals may be more effective (see Topical & Skincare below)

• May only reduce pain sensitivity in males52

• Pain-relief may be enhanced by music55

Pets • Effective in treating osteoarthritis56,57

• Helps with pain, anxiety, epilepsy and phobias58



Potentially altered endocannabinoid system functioning in osteoarthritis59
Topical & Skincare • Effective for pain and inflammation60,61,62

• Effective for skin conditions63 such as acne64 and psoriasis65,66



Evidence for skin conditions currently weak
Sleep • High doses sedative67, low doses cause wakefulness68

• May improve sleep in those with psychiatric-related sleep disorders69

• No effects on sleep cycle in healthy individuals70

• Reduced symptoms of REM sleep behaviour disorder71





  1. Salami SA, Martinelli F, Giovino A, Bachari A, Arad N, Mantri N. It Is Our Turn to Get Cannabis High: Put Cannabinoids in Food and Health Baskets. Molecules. 2020;25(18):E4036. Published 2020 Sep 4. doi:10.3390/molecules25184036 – PubMed
  1. Chye Y, Christensen E, Solowij N, Yücel M. The Endocannabinoid System and Cannabidiol’s Promise for the Treatment of Substance Use Disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2019;10:63. Published 2019 Feb 19. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00063 – PMC PubMed
  1. De Ternay J, Naassila M, Nourredine M, et al. Therapeutic Prospects of Cannabidiol for Alcohol Use Disorder and Alcohol-Related Damages on the Liver and the Brain. Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:627. Published 2019 May 31. doi:10.3389/fphar.2019.00627 – PMC PubMed
  1. Turna J, Syan SK, Frey BN, et al. Cannabidiol as a Novel Candidate Alcohol Use Disorder Pharmacotherapy: A Systematic Review. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2019;43(4):550-563. doi:10.1111/acer.13964 – PMC PubMed
  1. Viudez-Martínez A, García-Gutiérrez MS, Navarrón CM, et al. Cannabidiol reduces ethanol consumption, motivation and relapse in mice. Addict Biol. 2018;23(1):154-164. doi:10.1111/adb.12495 – PubMed
  1. Hindocha C, Freeman TP, Grabski M, et al. Cannabidiol reverses attentional bias to cigarette cues in a human experimental model of tobacco withdrawal [published online ahead of print, 2018 May 1]. Addiction. 2018;113(9):1696-1705. doi:10.1111/add.14243 – PMC PubMed
  1. Freeman TP, Hindocha C, Baio G, Shaban NDC, Thomas EM, Astbury D. Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis use disorder: a phase 2a, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, adaptive Bayesian trial. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(10):865-874. Published 2020 Jul 28. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30290-X
  1. Calpe-López C, García-Pardo MP, Aguilar MA. Cannabidiol Treatment Might Promote Resilience to Cocaine and Methamphetamine Use Disorders: A Review of Possible Mechanisms. Molecules. 2019;24(14):2583. Published 2019 Jul 16. doi:10.3390/molecules24142583 – PMC PubMed
  1. Hurd YL, Spriggs S, Alishayev J, et al. Cannabidiol for the Reduction of Cue-Induced Craving and Anxiety in Drug-Abstinent Individuals With Heroin Use Disorder: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial [published correction appears in Am J Psychiatry. 2020 Jul 1;177(7):641]. Am J Psychiatry. 2019;176(11):911-922. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.18101191 – PubMed
  1. Larsen C, Shahinas J. Dosage, Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol Administration in Adults: A Systematic Review of Human Trials. J Clin Med Res. 2020;12(3):129-141. doi:10.14740/jocmr4090 – PMC PubMed
  1. Shannon S, Lewis N, Lee H, Hughes S. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Perm J. 2019;23:18-041. doi:10.7812/TPP/18-041 – PMC PubMed
  1. Wright M, Di Ciano P, Brands B. Use of Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Anxiety: A Short Synthesis of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Evidence. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2020;5(3):191-196. Published 2020 Sep 2. doi:10.1089/can.2019.0052 – PMC PubMed
  1. Elms L, Shannon S, Hughes S, Lewis N. Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series. J Altern Complement Med. 2019;25(4):392-397. doi:10.1089/acm.2018.0437 – PMC PubMed
  1. Chesney E, Oliver D, Green A, et al. Adverse effects of cannabidiol: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2020;45(11):1799-1806. doi:10.1038/s41386-020-0667-2 – PubMed
  1. Stern CAJ, da Silva TR, Raymundi AM, et al. Cannabidiol disrupts the consolidation of specific and generalized fear memories via dorsal hippocampus CB1 and CB2 receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2017;125:220-230. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.07.024 – PubMed
  1. Murkar A, Kent P, Cayer C, James J, Durst T, Merali Z. Cannabidiol and the Remainder of the Plant Extract Modulate the Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Fear Memory Reconsolidation. Front Behav Neurosci. 2019;13:174. Published 2019 Aug 1. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00174 – PMC PubMed
  1. Do Monte FH, Souza RR, Bitencourt RM, Kroon JA, Takahashi RN. Infusion of cannabidiol into infralimbic cortex facilitates fear extinction via CB1 receptors. Behav Brain Res. 2013;250:23-27. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.04.045– PubMed
  1. Das RK, Kamboj SK, Ramadas M, et al. Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013;226(4):781-792. doi:10.1007/s00213-012-2955-y – PubMed
  1. Jurkus R, Day HL, Guimarães FS, Lee JL, Bertoglio LJ, Stevenson CW. Cannabidiol Regulation of Learned Fear: Implications for Treating Anxiety-Related Disorders. Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:454. Published 2016 Nov 24. doi:10.3389/fphar.2016.00454 – PMC PubMed
  1. Shallcross J, Hámor P, Bechard AR, Romano M, Knackstedt L, Schwendt M. The Divergent Effects of CDPPB and Cannabidiol on Fear Extinction and Anxiety in a Predator Scent Stress Model of PTSD in Rats. Front Behav Neurosci. 2019;13:91. Published 2019 May 10. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00091 – PMC PubMed
  1. Uhernik AL, Montoya ZT, Balkissoon CD, Smith JP. Learning and memory is modulated by cannabidiol when administered during trace fear-conditioning. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2018;149:68-76. doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2018.02.009 – PubMed
  1. Zuardi AW, Rodrigues NP, Silva AL, et al. Inverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:259. Published 2017 May 11. doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00259 – PMC PubMed
  1. McCartney D, Benson MJ, Desbrow B, Irwin C, Suraev A, McGregor IS. Cannabidiol and Sports Performance: a Narrative Review of Relevant Evidence and Recommendations for Future Research. Sports Med Open. 2020;6(1):27. Published 2020 Jul 6. doi:10.1186/s40798-020-00251-0 – PMC PubMed
  1. Gamelin FX, Cuvelier G, Mendes A, et al. Cannabidiol in sport: Ergogenic or else?. Pharmacol Res. 2020;156:104764. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104764 – PubMed
  1. Pretzsch CM, Voinescu B, Mendez MA, et al. The effect of cannabidiol (CBD) on low-frequency activity and functional connectivity in the brain of adults with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). J Psychopharmacol. 2019;33(9):1141-1148. doi:10.1177/0269881119858306 – PMC  PubMed
  1. Fusar-Poli L, Cavone V, Tinacci S, et al. Cannabinoids for People with ASD: A Systematic Review of Published and Ongoing Studies. Brain Sci. 2020;10(9):572. Published 2020 Aug 20. doi:10.3390/brainsci10090572 – PMC PubMed
  1. Karhson DS, Krasinska KM, Dallaire JA, et al. Plasma anandamide concentrations are lower in children with autism spectrum disorder. Mol Autism. 2018;9:18. Published 2018 Mar 12. doi:10.1186/s13229-018-0203-y – PMC PubMed
  1. McAllister SD, Soroceanu L, Desprez PY. The Antitumor Activity of Plant-Derived Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2015;10(2):255-267. doi:10.1007/s11481-015-9608-y – PMC PubMed
  1. Orrego-González E, Londoño-Tobón L, Ardila-González J, Polania-Tovar D, Valencia-Cárdenas A, Velez-Van Meerbeke A. Cannabinoid Effects on Experimental Colorectal Cancer Models Reduce Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) and Tumor Volume: A Systematic Review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020;2020:2371527. Published 2020 Jul 20. doi:10.1155/2020/2371527 – PMC PubMed
  1. Marinelli O, Morelli MB, Annibali D, et al. The Effects of Cannabidiol and Prognostic Role of TRPV2 in Human Endometrial Cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(15):5409. Published 2020 Jul 29. doi:10.3390/ijms21155409 – PMC PubMed
  1. Bachari A, Piva TJ, Salami SA, Jamshidi N, Mantri N. Roles of Cannabinoids in Melanoma: Evidence from In Vivo Studies. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(17):6040. Published 2020 Aug 21. doi:10.3390/ijms21176040 – PMC PubMed
  1. Sainz-Cort A, Müller-Sánchez C, Espel E. Anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effect of cannabidiol on human cancer cell lines in presence of serum. BMC Res Notes. 2020;13(1):389. Published 2020 Aug 20. doi:10.1186/s13104-020-05229-5 – PMC PubMed
  1. Kicman A, Toczek M. The Effects of Cannabidiol, a Non-Intoxicating Compound of Cannabis, on the Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(18):6740. Published 2020 Sep 14. doi:10.3390/ijms21186740 – PMC PubMed
  1. Bloomfield MAP, Green SF, Hindocha C, et al. The effects of acute cannabidiol on cerebral blood flow and its relationship to memory: An arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging study. J Psychopharmacol. 2020;34(9):981-989. doi:10.1177/0269881120936419 – PMC PubMed
  1. Peyravian N, Deo S, Daunert S, Jimenez JJ. Cannabidiol as a Novel Therapeutic for Immune Modulation. Immunotargets Ther. 2020;9:131-140. Published 2020 Aug 18. doi:10.2147/ITT.S263690 – PMC PubMed
  1. Nichols JM, Kaplan BLF. Immune Responses Regulated by Cannabidiol. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2020;5(1):12-31. Published 2020 Feb 27. doi:10.1089/can.2018.0073 – PMC PubMed
  1. Yeshurun M, Shpilberg O, Herscovici C, et al. Cannabidiol for the Prevention of Graft-versus-Host-Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Results of a Phase II Study. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2015;21(10):1770-1775. doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.05.018 – PubMed
  1. Nagarkatti M, Rieder SA, Hegde VL, Kanada S, Nagarkatti P. Do cannabinoids have a therapeutic role in transplantation?. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2010;31(8):345-350. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2010.05.006 – PMC PubMed
  2. Cooray R, Gupta V, Suphioglu C. Current Aspects of the Endocannabinoid System and Targeted THC and CBD Phytocannabinoids as Potential Therapeutics for Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Diseases: a Review. Mol Neurobiol. 2020;57(11):4878-4890. doi:10.1007/s12035-020-02054-6 – PMC PubMed
  1. Jones É, Vlachou S. A Critical Review of the Role of the Cannabinoid Compounds Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) and their Combination in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment. Molecules. 2020;25(21):E4930. Published 2020 Oct 25. doi:10.3390/molecules25214930 – PubMed
  1. Al-Ghezi ZZ, Miranda K, Nagarkatti M, Nagarkatti PS. Combination of Cannabinoids, Δ9- Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol, Ameliorates Experimental Multiple Sclerosis by Suppressing Neuroinflammation Through Regulation of miRNA-Mediated Signaling Pathways. Front Immunol. 2019;10:1921. Published 2019 Aug 21. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.01921 – PMC PubMed
  1. Kozela E, Juknat A, Vogel Z. Modulation of Astrocyte Activity by Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(8):1669. Published 2017 Jul 31. doi:10.3390/ijms18081669 – PMC PubMed
  1. De Gregorio D, McLaughlin RJ, Posa L, et al. Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2019;160(1):136-150. doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001386 – PMC PubMed
  1. Gugliandolo A, Silvestro S, Chiricosta L, Pollastro F, Bramanti P, Mazzon E. The Transcriptomic Analysis of NSC-34 Motor Neuron-Like Cells Reveals That Cannabigerol Influences Synaptic Pathways: A Comparative Study with Cannabidiol. Life (Basel). 2020;10(10):227. Published 2020 Oct 1. doi:10.3390/life10100227 – PMC PubMed
  1. di Giacomo V, Chiavaroli A, Recinella L, et al. Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat CTX-TNA2 Astrocytes and Isolated Cortexes. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(10):3575. Published 2020 May 18. doi:10.3390/ijms21103575 – PMC PubMed
  1. di Giacomo V, Chiavaroli A, Orlando G, et al. Neuroprotective and Neuromodulatory Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat Hypo-E22 cells and Isolated Hypothalamus. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020;9(1):71. Published 2020 Jan 13. doi:10.3390/antiox9010071 – PMC PubMed
  1. Mammana S, Cavalli E, Gugliandolo A, et al. Could the Combination of Two Non-Psychotropic Cannabinoids Counteract Neuroinflammation? Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Associated with Cannabigerol. Medicina (Kaunas). 2019;55(11):747. Published 2019 Nov 18. doi:10.3390/medicina55110747 – PMC PubMed
  1. Cogan PS. Practical Considerations of Hypotheses and Evidence in Cannabis Pharmacotherapy: Refining Expectations of Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency. J Diet Suppl. 2020;17(5):608-624. doi:10.1080/19390211.2020.1769246 – PubMed
  1. Verrico CD, Wesson S, Konduri V, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of daily cannabidiol for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis pain [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 24]. Pain. 2020;10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001896. doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001896 – PubMed
  1. Gamble LJ, Boesch JM, Frye CW, et al. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Front Vet Sci. 2018;5:165. Published 2018 Jul 23. doi:10.3389/fvets.2018.00165 – PMC PubMed
  1. Philpott HT, OʼBrien M, McDougall JJ. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Pain. 2017;158(12):2442-2451. doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001052 – PMC PubMed
  1. Linher-Melville K, Zhu YF, Sidhu J, et al. Evaluation of the preclinical analgesic efficacy of naturally derived, orally administered oil forms of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and their 1:1 combination. PLoS One. 2020;15(6):e0234176. Published 2020 Jun 4. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0234176 – PMC PubMed
  1. Argueta DA, Ventura CM, Kiven S, Sagi V, Gupta K. A Balanced Approach for Cannabidiol Use in Chronic Pain. Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:561. Published 2020 Apr 30. doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.00561 – PMC PubMed
  1. Boyaji S, Merkow J, Elman RNM, Kaye AD, Yong RJ, Urman RD. The Role of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Chronic Pain Management: An Assessment of Current Evidence. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2020;24(2):4. Published 2020 Jan 24. doi:10.1007/s11916-020-0835-4 – PubMed
  1. Metcalf CS, Huntsman M, Garcia G, et al. Music-Enhanced Analgesia and Antiseizure Activities in Animal Models of Pain and Epilepsy: Toward Preclinical Studies Supporting Development of Digital Therapeutics and Their Combinations With Pharmaceutical Drugs. Front Neurol. 2019;10:277. Published 2019 Mar 27. doi:10.3389/fneur.2019.00277 – PMC PubMed
  1. Brioschi FA, Di Cesare F, Gioeni D, et al. Oral Transmucosal Cannabidiol Oil Formulation as Part of a Multimodal Analgesic Regimen: Effects on Pain Relief and Quality of Life Improvement in Dogs Affected by Spontaneous Osteoarthritis. Animals (Basel). 2020;10(9):1505. Published 2020 Aug 26. doi:10.3390/ani10091505 – PMC PubMed
  1. Verrico CD, Wesson S, Konduri V, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of daily cannabidiol for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis pain [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 24]. Pain. 2020;10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001896. doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001896 – PubMed
  1. Kogan L, Schoenfeld-Tacher R, Hellyer P, Rishniw M. US Veterinarians’ Knowledge, Experience, and Perception Regarding the Use of Cannabidiol for Canine Medical Conditions. Front Vet Sci. 2019;5:338. Published 2019 Jan 10. doi:10.3389/fvets.2018.00338 – PMC PubMed
  1. Bryk M, Chwastek J, Kostrzewa M, Mlost J, Pędracka A, Starowicz K. Alterations in Anandamide Synthesis and Degradation during Osteoarthritis Progression in an Animal Model. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(19):7381. Published 2020 Oct 6. doi:10.3390/ijms21197381 – PMC PubMed
  1. Eskander JP, Spall J, Spall A, Shah RV, Kaye AD. Cannabidiol (CBD) as a treatment of acute and chronic back pain: A case series and literature review. J Opioid Manag. 2020;16(3):215-218. doi:10.5055/jom.2020.0570 – PubMed
  1. Xu DH, Cullen BD, Tang M, Fang Y. The Effectiveness of Topical Cannabidiol Oil in Symptomatic Relief of Peripheral Neuropathy of the Lower Extremities. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2020;21(5):390-402. doi:10.2174/1389201020666191202111534 – PubMed
  1. Hammell DC, Zhang LP, Ma F, et al. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. Eur J Pain. 2016;20(6):936-948. doi:10.1002/ejp.818 – PMC PubMed
  1. Casares L, García V, Garrido-Rodríguez M, et al. Cannabidiol induces antioxidant pathways in keratinocytes by targeting BACH1. Redox Biol. 2020;28:101321. doi:10.1016/j.redox.2019.101321 – PMC PubMed
  1. Oláh A, Tóth BI, Borbíró I, et al. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. J Clin Invest. 2014;124(9):3713-3724. doi:10.1172/JCI64628 – PMC PubMed
  1. Wójcik P, Garley M, Wroński A, Jabłońska E, Skrzydlewska E. Cannabidiol Modifies the Formation of NETs in Neutrophils of Psoriatic Patients. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(18):6795. Published 2020 Sep 16. doi:10.3390/ijms21186795 – PMC PubMed
  1. Palmieri B, Laurino C, Vadalà M. A therapeutic effect of cbd-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars. Clin Ter. 2019;170(2):e93-e99. doi:10.7417/CT.2019.2116 – PubMed
  1. Carlini EA, Cunha JM. Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol. J Clin Pharmacol. 1981;21(S1):417S-427S. doi:10.1002/j.1552-4604.1981.tb02622.x – PubMed
  1. Murillo-Rodríguez E, Sarro-Ramírez A, Sánchez D, et al. Potential effects of cannabidiol as a wake-promoting agent. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2014;12(3):269-272. doi:10.2174/1570159X11666131204235805 – PMC PubMed
  1. Shannon S, Lewis N, Lee H, Hughes S. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Perm J. 2019;23:18-041. doi:10.7812/TPP/18-041 – PMC PubMed
  1. Linares IMP, Guimaraes FS, Eckeli A, et al. No Acute Effects of Cannabidiol on the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:315. Published 2018 Apr 5. doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00315 – PMC PubMed
  2. Chagas MH, Eckeli AL, Zuardi AW, et al. Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease patients: a case series. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2014;39(5):564-566. doi:10.1111/jcpt.12179 – PubMed




These articles are not intended to serve as medical advice, and in the case of referenced sources, do not necessarily reflect the authors’ or collaborators’ opinions. Our aim is to help present reliable information in a way that’s accessible to the average reader, and we try, to the best of our ability, to preserve the context of our sources in this endeavour.

Leave your thought here